Gamification is a technique UX designers use to add game-like features in otherwise non-gaming environments, to enhance user engagement with products and services.
There are many ways to get users from A to B on a website or in an app. Gamification is about making the experience fun, memorable, and addictive.
There are many ways to add gamification to a product, just think of any video game that you like and find yourself going back to. What is it that appeals to you? The leaderboards? Task-completion? Competitive scoring? Badges? Weapons upgrades? Status among peers? Notifications?
One of the main elements that make games addictive and fun to different people is the dopamine release you get whenever you accomplish something, and how that feeds into your reward-system.
gamification is trying to take bits and pieces of what makes gaming engaging, and apply it to any type of product or service.